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Tuesday, 15 November 2016

English Grammar - Let’s learn and Practice

Introduction
The English Language for primary student (SK) is written to fulfil the Learning Standards in the Standard Document for Primary School English Language Curriculum (KSSR) for Year 1- 6. These Learning Standards written in the Standard Document should be learnt and achieved by primary pupils.
The textbook is designed to equip pupils with the basic language skills and knowledge that would enable them to communicate and use the language effectively in various contexts. A modular approach is used to provide pupils with the opportunity to focus on and develop specific language skills. These skills are Listening and Speaking, Reading, Writing, Grammar, and Language Arts.
There are several units in the textbook presented under three themes namely the World of Self, Family and Friends, the World of Stories, and the World of Knowledge. Each unit provides situations which pupils can relate to in order to make language learning fun and meaningful. The textbook (for Year 5) also incorporates 12 educational emphases, higher order thinking skills, and moral values.
Teachers should use and adapt the material to accommodate to pupils' different levels and needs. The purpose of this book is to guide teachers to deliver their lessons effectively. It is hoped that pupils will be able to use the English language confidently, appropriately, and correctly in and beyond the classroom.
Listening and Speaking
The listening and speaking component aims to develop pupils' abilities to listen and respond to different stimuli. It also aims to develop pupils’ abilities to listen to oral texts and speak confidently both in and outside the classroom. The activities are to be conducted by the teacher as pairwork or group work where pupils are given opportunities to practise the language and interact with one another. Take note that the listening and speaking activity is to be conducted by the teacher or as a pairwork activity to enable the pupils to practise the language orally.
The Listening and Speaking activities are presented with these icons:
Let’s listen and say/Let’s talk/Let’s listen and do
Reading

The reading activities are designed to develop pupils’ reading skills to read at word, phrase, and sentence levels. A variety of linear and non-linear texts are included to enrich pupils’ reading experiences. Towards the end, different varieties of reading materials comprising poems, stories, rhymes, dialogues, brochures, and charts are included to enrich the pupils’ reading experience.
Reading activities are presented with these icons.
Let’s read and answer/Let’s read.
Writing
This writing component provides opportunities for pupils to form letters and words in legible writing. It also focuses on using appropriate language, form and style for specific purposes. Pupils are taught to write at word, phrase and sentence levels. The activities allow them to write properly and creatively through a variety of medium and text types.
Writing activities are presented with this icon.
Let’s write.
Language Arts
This component provides opportunities for pupils to use English through fun-filled activities that stimulate their imagination and interest. The activities also encourage the pupils to plan, prepare, and produce creative pieces of art.
These are the icons for the language arts activities.
Let’s recite/Let’s read and practise/Let’s read.
Grammar
The grammar activities in every unit provide a simplified explanation of grammar rules and a contextualised use of the aspects. The units encourage pupils to use the grammar items learned in a variety of contextualised or situational texts.
Grammar activities are presented with these icons.
Let’s learn and practise/Let’s do/Let’s practice

Grammar
Let’s learn and practise
Punctuation
Punctuation marks are symbols that show how a phrase or sentence is divided and how it should be read.
Some common punctuation symbols:
question mark (?)
full stop (.)
comma (,)

We use a full stop . at the end of a complete sentence.
Example: The view was truly breathtaking.

We use a comma , to separate phrases or items in a list.
Example: Vijay’s mother bought milk, eggs, and bread at the grocery.

A comma also is placed before an ‘and’ in a series of three or more items. It is known as the ‘Oxford comma’. It is used to avoid ambiguity.
Example: We had chicken chop, grilled lamb, and fish and chips at the new restaurant.

We use a question mark (?) at the end of a sentence when asking a question.
Example: Where are you going?

More examples:
He said, “Mother, why are you so sad?”
She said to Jem, “Thank you, my dear boy. I shall repay you. This is for your trouble.”
“Oh, thank you,” said the man.
“Come and play with me!” the tree said.
“Sorry, but I do not have a house. You can chop my branches off and build your house,” answered the tree.
“I am getting old. I want to go sailing to relax myself. Can you give me a boat?” asked the man.
“Use my trunk to build your boat. You can sail far away and be happy,” answered the tree.

Let’s practise.
Rewrite the sentences. Put a full stop, comma or a question mark.
Where is the book you bought yesterday
They decorated the hall with blue green red and yellow balloons
I had a toast some cereal and orange juice for breakfast this morning

Rewrite the passage using the correct punctuation.
jasleen and her family went to sentosa theme park for a holiday they enjoyed themselves playing games and doing other activities jasleen also visited her uncle mr gurmit he works at the theme park he gave her some gifts as souvenirs it was a memorable holiday for her she hopes to go to the theme park again

Common Nouns.
The words in bold are called common nouns. A common noun is a word that refers to people, places, things, and animals. It does not refer to any specific name.
Examples:
Mash the eggs in a bowl.
Add a pinch of salt and pepper.
The parents can visit the classrooms.

A singular noun refers to one person, place or thing.
A plural noun refers to more than one person, place or thing.
Example:
Noun
People
Places
Things
Animals
Singular
lady
factory
bowl
ox
doctor
village
knife
goat
Plural
ladies
factories
bowls
oxen
doctors
villages
knives
goats

Let’s practise.
Read the sentences below and fill in the blanks with the words given.
batteries
turtle
sheep
children
friends
cakes
photographs
eggs
boxes
knives

The ___ crawled to the sea after laying
Jasleen’s father took some ___ during the event.
The ___were happy to see the grazing in the fields.
There were many ___ in the ___ on the kitchen cabinet.
Puan Anisa baked ___ and cookies for her family and ___ .
We need new ___ for the remote control. It is not functioning well.

Let’s do.
Read the passage and complete the table below.
During the last school holiday, Irfan and his family went to a beach in Perak for a Family Day. They had a picnic by the beach. Irfan’s father rented a beautiful chalet for them to stay. Irfan’s mother brought sandwiches, chicken nuggets, and sausages in a big basket. They enjoyed sitting on the sandy beach under the tall coconut trees. They had a good time together as a family.

Singular Nouns: ___
Plural Nouns: ___

Let’s practise.
Read the sentences and circle the common nouns.
He kicks the ball out of the park.
The boys are swimming in the pool.
Susan buys a kitten for her sister, Maria.
The children are going to the canteen to have some snacks.
Pak Halim rears cows, sheep, and goats at his farm in Kelantan.
Mrs. Rajes went to the grocery shop to buy some brushes and matches.

Write the common nouns from the sentences in the correct column.
People:
Place:
Things
Animal:

A collective noun
A collective noun is used to describe a group of people or animals, or a collection of things.
Example:
I can use the pocket money I saved to buy a bouquet of flowers for my mother on her birthday.

More examples:
People:
a staff of teachers
a crew of sailors
a choir of singers
Animals:
a brood of chicken
a herd of elephants
a stable of horses
Things:
a bunch of grapes    
a clump of trees
a collection of old coins
a pile of books
a string of pearls     
a loaf of bread

Let’s Practice
Write the correct collective nouns.
a troupe of dancers
an army of soldiers
a gang of thieves
a flock of sheep
a litter of kittens
a school of fish

Let’s practise.
Identify the collective noun.
Write in a complete sentence.
Example: A litter of kittens is sleeping in the basket.
There is ___ in the basket.
A ___ is in the wooden box.
___ is having a meeting now.
___ stomped through the jungle.


Read the passage below and choose the most suitable collective nouns.
___(1) has come to clear the jungle. The animals are forced to move out of their natural homes. ___(2)___ swings quickly from tree to tree. ___(3)___ roars loudly and walks hurriedly away. ___(4)___ moves swiftly. ___(5)___  and ___(6)___ fly hastily away to look for a new place to live.

The words in bold are called collective nouns.
a herd of antelopes
a pack of lions
a group of men      
a troop of monkeys
a flock of birds       
a swarm of bees

Let’s do.
Construct sentences using the correct collective nouns.
Example: 
A pride of lions is resting under the tree.
The fisherman sold catch of fish to a fishmonger this morning.

The divers saw shoal of fish among the corals.
Different collective nouns can often be used to describe the same groups of animals.
Make sentences with the collective nouns.
colony, nest
catch, shoal
flight, flock
herd, stable

Reflexive Pronoun
The word in bold is a Reflexive Pronoun.
Example:
He always reminds the children to take care of themselves.

A reflexive pronoun is used to show that the action of the verb affects the person who performs the action.
Example:
The hero introduces himself to the children
From this sentence, we know that ‘the hero’ (doer) and ‘himself’ (reflexive pronoun) refer to the same person.

Reflexive Pronouns can be used in either singular or plural forms.
Exception: you can be used in both singular and plural forms.

Subject
Pronoun
Reflexive
Pronoun
Subject
Pronoun
Reflexive
Pronoun
I
myself
we
ourselves
you
yourself
you
yourselves
he
himself
they
themselves
she
herself

it
itself


Let’s practise.
Read the sentences. 
Circle the doer and underline the reflexive pronouns.
The boy hurt himself while playing.
The girl looks at herself in the mirror.
The man made himself a raft to cross the river.
The mouse ran and hid itself under the cupboard.
The lady sewed herself a beautiful dress for the wedding.
The children found themselves a shady tree to sit and rest.

Let’s practise.
If we use “by” before the reflexive pronoun, it means “alone".
Example:
The old man lives in the house by himself. He has no relatives.
A reflexive pronoun can also be used to emphasise someone or something we are referring to.
Example:
They themselves should be blamed for being careless.

Choose the correct answer.
I completed the homework (ourselves/myself).
My father and I washed the car (myself/ourselves).
Irfan and Jasleen walked in the park by (themselves/ourselves).
Captain Malaysia saved the children (themselves/himself)
Mother (himself/herself) is going to the police station to make a report.

Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns.
___ opens the cage itself.
___ drives himself to work.
___ washed the dishes myself.
____ takes care of the baby herself.
___ played outside by themselves.

Make sentences using reflexive pronouns.
Example: Vijay is reading a book all by himself.


The Future Continuous Tense
The sentences above are written in the Future Continuous Tense. We use this tense to talk about an action that will be happening at a particular moment or time in the future.
Examples:
I shall be working late tomorrow.
He will be leaving on a business trip to Singapore.

I
we
shall + be + having = shall be having
I
we
shall not + be + doing = shall not be doing
I
he
she
it
they
we
you


will +be + playing = will be playing
I
he
she
it
they
we
you


will not + be + watching = will not be watching
The structure of the future continuous tense is:
Time
Name
6:00 a.m.
7:00 a.m.
8.00 a.m.
12:00 noon
2.00 p.m.
5:00 p.m.
7:00 p.m.
I
brush
teeth
go to the market with her parents
have
breakfast
have lunch
do revision
play
netball
spend time with her family
May
Lee
wake up
have
breakfast
play the piano
have lunch
attend tae kwan do class
play
badminton
watch
television
Irfan
shower
help mother to prepare breakfast
have
breakfast
swim
have lunch
cycle
watch a movie at the cinema

What will you be doing at 2:00 p.m.? I shall be doing revision.
What will Irfan be doing at 12:00 noon? He will be swimming.
What will May Lee be doing at 7:00 a.m.? She will be having breakfast.
Write what May Lee, Irfan, and Jasleen will be doing at other times.

Let’s practice
Complete the sentences using the future continuous tense.
I ___ (travel) to London next month.
Teachers ___ (mark) the exam papers over the weekend.
We ___ (not go to school) next week because it is the holidays.
The mechanic  ___ (repair) my father’s car this time next Monday.
Sigat ___ (watch) his favourite television programme in the evening.
My cousin ___ (not go) to university next year because of his poor result.
We ___ (sell) a variety of food and drinks at the school carnival next Saturday.
Jasleen’s mother ___ (drive) her to her grandparents’ house next Friday afternoon.

Based on the pictures below, write eight sentences describing what you or your friends will/will not be doing during the coming school holiday.
I shall be …
He will not be

The Simple Future Tense.
The words in bold are written in the Simple Future Tense. The future tense tells us more about an action or an event that will take place in the future.
Example:
We will see a lot more e-books in the future.

Will/Shall are modal verbs. Will/Shall are positive modal verbs and will not/shall not are negative modal verbs.
The modal verb will/shall are always followed by a base word.
Shall is traditionally used with the pronouns ‘I’ and ‘we’.

Examples:
I
we
shall + come = shall come
I
We
shall not + send = shall not send

I


I

he

he

she

she

it
will + arrive = will arrive
it
will not + text = will not text
they

they

we

we

you

you


Fill in the blanks with the correct Simple Future Tense.
I ___ (finish) the work given by my teacher online.
Mrs. Tan ___ (not work) tomorrow because she is sick.
Jasleen ___ (present) a PowerPoint presentation to her class next week.
May Lee ___ (not leave) her laptop on the table because it may get stolen.
Vijay ___ (open) the door for the guests who are coming for the Information Technology exhibition.

Tell your friend what you will and will not do:
-later this evening
-next Saturday
-tomorrow   
- next month

Simple Present Tense
Simple Present Tense can be used to show a habitual action and a universal truth.
Examples:
I go to school every day.   every day” refers to a habitual action.
The sun rises in the east.   the sun rises in the east” is an
unchanging fact. It is a universal truth.

Let's practice 
Identify the Simple Present Tense.
Piri usually goes to school by bus. Every morning, he walks to the nearest bus stop to catch the bus. Izwin and Anand usually cycle to school. Syazureen does not join them. Eva and Yoke Phin do not join them either.

Complete the text with the correct forms of the verb.
Nazmi works in a big company. Every morning, he (1)(wake) up early before going to work. He (2)(take) breakfast at home with his family. Nazmi (3)(have) two children. While having breakfast, he sometimes (4)(watch) television with his children. His wife, Rosie (5)(be) usually busy doing housework. Nazmi usually (6)(leave) for work at 7.30 (7)(stop) by the kindergarten to send his children there.

Match the job with its description
I am a musician/I am a car racer/I am a photographer.
I practise playing the songs every day. (I am a musician)
I usually win in car races.
Sometimes I take pictures of famous people.
I play the piano.
Every year I travel around the world to take beautiful photos.
I drive fast cars.
Every year, I perform at concerts.
I drive in the racing tracks every week.

I take pictures for newspapers every day.


The Simple Past Tense
The past tense of irregular verbs
Piri is telling Anand about his cousin’s visit.
Piri: Last week, my cousin Kerine came from Sarawak.
Anand: Where did you take him to visit?
Piri: Yesterday, my family and I took him to visit the Kuala Lumpur Tower.
He was very excited.
Anand: Where did you go for dinner?
Piri: Oh, we ate at an Indian restaurant last night. He said the nasi kandar there tasted better. One bad incident happened to him when he was here.
Anand: Oh, what happened?
Piri: That night he slipped and hurt himself.
Anand: Was he badly hurt?
Piri: Not much, but he could not wear the nice pair of shoes that he bought. Anand: I hope he was alright. When did he go back to Sarawak?
Piri: He went back this morning.

The words in bold are the past tense of irregular verbs. Irregular verbs change in two different ways when used in the past tense.
Irregular verbs that change when used in the Past Tense.
Examples: Come - came, Eat - ate, Drink – drank
Irregular verbs that DO NOT change when used in the Past Tense.
Examples: Hit - hit, Hurt - hurt, Cut - cut
  
Read the text below and rewrite the text in past tense.
I like helping my mother to cook. She teaches me to cook fried rice. She tells me to prepare the ingredients.
We have oil, onions, prawns, salt, eggs, spring onions and rice. I cut the onions into thin slices and beat the eggs. My mother removes the shells of the prawns, cut and washes the spring onions.

When everything is ready, I heat some oil in a pan. I fry the onions and the prawns. When they are light brown I pour in the eggs. After that I add the rice and salt. I cook it slowly for a few minutes. Finally, I take the spring onions and add them to the rice.

Conjunctions
Although and since are conjunctions
Examples:
Although everyone in the kingdom loved King Sam, he was not happy.
Since he loved painting, John decided to give it a try.

We use 'although’ to show contrast
We use 'since’ to express cause and effect
Although he was married, King Sam did not have any children.
Since King Sam did not have children, he decided to find an heir to his throne.
Although John was poor, he led a very happy life.
Since the people in the kingdom wanted to be the heir, they started painting immediately.
Although the old man was sick, he painted the portrait of the king.
Since the king was not happy with his people’s work of art, he asked them to leave the palace.

Do not add ‘but’ in the sentence that has the conjunction ‘although’.
Examples:
Although the woman is old, but she has a lot of energy. (X)
Although the woman is old, she has a lot of energy. (/)

Complete the sentences using although and since.
____she is beautiful, she is not proud.
____ Vjjay was sick, he still came to school.
____ he is poor, he gives his family the best.
___  you are so helpful, let me buy you a gift.
____ it was raining, May Lee took an umbrella to school.
____ Irfan scored the highest in English, he remained humble.
____ her parents are away on a business trip, May Lee has to stay with her aunt.
____ it is Jasleen’s birthday today, she has invited all her friends to her birthday party.

Let’s Practice
Complete the passage below using 'although’ or 'since’.
King Sam had chosen John as his heir. He wanted to know how John would help build and expand his kingdom. So one day, King Sam spoke to John at his courtyard.
King Sam: Now that I have chosen you as the heir to my throne, how are you going to help the people of this country?
John: ___ I have no experience in ruling the country, I believe I will do a good job, Your Majesty. ___ the children love reading, writing, and art, I will build more schools and hire the best teachers to teach these children.
King Sam: That’s a good idea. What about those elderly people in the villages?
John: ___ most of them are too old, I will give them a monthly pension to lead a comfortable life.
King Sam: I’m sure they will thank you for this. ___ you don’t have
much experience, I’m sure you will be a kind and loving king.
John: Thank you, Your Majesty. ___ you have given me the trust,
I will not let you down.

More practices…
Write five sentences using although and five sentences using since.
References…

Prepositions of Position
The words along and against are Prepositions of Position.
They show the location of an object or person.
Examples:
They walked along the path together to the island.
She showed the peach to her husband and placed it against the wall.

We use ‘along’ for things that are placed from one end to the other.
Example: These trees are planted along the road.
We use ‘against’ when someone or something is pressing on another object.
Example: The man is leaning against the wall.
We also use ’along’ when someone or something is moving in a constant direction.
Example: The tourists enjoy walking along the beach.
We also use ‘against’ to talk about the physical contact made by two objects.
Example: The waves are crashing against the rocks.

Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions.
Irfan placed his bicycle ____ the pole.
The girl leaned ___ the bookshelves.
Sigat walked ___ the road to go to school.
There were many stalls ___ the main road.
Vijay accidentally knocked his head ___ the door.

Let’s learn and practise.
Write the correct phrase for each picture
across the river
along the street
along the white line
against the wall
Based on the picture below, write five sentences using along and against

Prepositions of Place.
The words over and among are Prepositions of Place.
Examples:
There are different types of birds flying over the trees in this sanctuary.
There are 3,000 species of `fish among the colourful coral species.

Preposition of place
Explanation
Example
over
to show movement from one side to the other, or across something
The orang-utan throws a banana over its head.
I/We saw some perahu tambang when we flew over the river.
among
in the middle of or surrounded by other things
There is a huge rafflesia among the flowers.
She found a beautiful coral among the shells.

Fill in the blanks with the correct answer.
The monkey jumped ___ the wall.
Miss Sharmila is standing ___ the teachers who are going to Sabah.
The plane flew ____ the paddy fields before landing.
The workers built a bridge ___ the river.
Encik Amir put the Sarawak vase ___ the many vases that he has.
There is an orang-utan sitting ___ the monkeys and squirrels.

Irfan is telling Jasleen about his visit to Sabah.
The trip to Sabah was the best. I went jungle trekking with my family. I saw a baby proboscis monkey among a troop of proboscis monkeys in the forest. It was amazing.
Wow! That’s fantastic, Irfan. Proboscis monkeys are unique animals which can only be found in certain places in Borneo.
Yes, you are right. I took some pictures of an adult proboscis monkey when it was jumping over a stream to look for food.

Write sentences using among and over.
Example:
-if- tourist - standing - peacocks -
The tourist is standing among the peacocks.
More practices…
- aeroplane - flying - Mount Kinabalu
- girl - standing - Sarawak vases -
- bee - flying - a pot of honey

Prepositions of Direction.
Across and through are called Prepositions of Direction. They are used to show where a person, an animal or a thing is going to or coming from.
Examples:
There are many planets and stars across the universe.
What can we see through an ordinary telescope?

Preposition: across
Usage: moving from one side to the other side.
Example: May Lee is running across the field.
Preposition: through
Usage: Going from one point to the other point.
Example: Jasleen is jumping through the hoop.

Fill in the blanks.
Vjjay rolls the marble ___ the tube.
I saw the squirrels climb in ___ the window.
The swimmers swam ___ the lake in five minutes.
He saw an accident when he drove ___ the tunnel.
The cat ran ____ the hole to the other side of the house.
The ferry sailed ____ the Straits of Malacca to Sumatera.
The villagers have decided to build a bridge ___ the river.
Irfan’s grandparents live in the old building ____ the street.
We had to walk___  the jungle before reaching the waterfall.
May Lee saw Miss Sharmila walked___ the road and went into a shop.

Let’s practice
Based on the pictures below, write sentences using across and through.
Example: The man is riding his camel across the desert.
across the desert
through the tunnel
across the ocean
through the window
across the field
through the jungle
through the loop
across the city

Fill in the blanks with across or through.
Jasleen looked ___ her telescope last night. She saw millions of shining stars ___ the sky. She hoped to see a shooting star to fly ___ the sky. Instead, mosquitoes flew into her bedroom ___ the window.

Adjectives
The words in bold are called adjectives.
Mount Vesuvius in Italy is the only active volcano in Europe.
The floods are worse than last year's.
The eruption was the most spectacular ever seen.
Adjectives are words that describe nouns.

You can describe a noun using more than one adjective.
In such cases, we use this order of adjectives:
Quantity or number
Quality or opinion
Size
Age
Shape
Colour

Positive adjectives
Some delicious sandwich. (quantity)/(opinion)
A round brown table. (shape)/(colour)
A clever young man. (opinion)/(age)
Other examples of adjectives.
Happy, graceful, two, short, sharp, young, several and blue
           
Describe five things in the classroom using suitable adjectives.
Example:
There is a big red pencil case on the desk.

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
Comparative adjectives
Comparative adjectives compare two nouns.
We usually add -er’ to the adjective.
For adjectives that we cannot add -er’, we add the word ‘more’ without changing the spelling.
Examples:
The waves are higher than yesterday.
This year, many of the flood victims are more prepared to face the disaster than last year.
Superlative adjectives
Superlative adjectives compare more than two nouns.
We usually add ‘the -est’ to the adjective.
For words that we cannot change, we add ‘the most’ to the adjective. Examples:
The hurricane which hit the city is the strongest ever recorded.
The eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the most destructive in the 20th century.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
old
older
oldest
thick
thicker
thickest
famous
more famous
most famous
hardworking
more hardworking
most hardworking
Some comparatives and superlatives are changed completely from their adjectives.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
good
better
best
bad
worse
worst
a few/ a little
less
least
many/ much
more
most

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives are special forms of adjectives.
Comparative Adjectives (-er/more...) are used to compare two persons or things.
Example: faster than
Superlative Adjectives (-est/most...) are used to compare three or more persons or things.
Example: the fastest
Forms of Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
Adjective/Comparative/Superlative
Slow/slower than/the slowest
Noisy/noisier than/the noisiest
Comfortable/more comfortable than/the most comfortable

Practice
Look at the table below.
Make sentences using the comparative and superlative adjectives.
Buildings –
Height
Sea/Oceans - Depth
Rivers - Length
Burj al Arab, Dubai (321 metres)
Pacific Ocean (4028 metres)
Amazon River, Brazil (6448 metres)
Eiffel Tower, Paris (300 metres)
Indian Ocean (3963 metres)
Yangtze River, China (4880 metres)
Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur (454 metres)
Atlantic Ocean (8648 metres)
Nile River, Egypt (6650 metres)

Read the following description.
What do you understand from the words in bold?
Kuala Lumpur is the most modern city in Malaysia. The public transport system here is the most developed in the country. The Komuter, the Light Rail Transit (LRT) and the Express Rail Link (ERL) are some of the latest examples of public transport. The Komuter is a fast form of rail transport. The Light Rail Transit is faster than the Komuter. Of the three, the Express Rail Link is the fastest.

Write the adjectives in the correct form.
The development of modern transportation brings many benefits to people. Solar powered cars are (1) (environmental friendly) compared to fuelled powered cars. In some countries, people can save time travelling by trains. The train in America is (2) (fast). It runs at 130 kph. The French high speed train is (3)(fast) than the one in America because it runs at 270 kph, but the Japanese bullet train is the (4)(fast) because it can travel up to 300 kph.

Interrogative Pronouns.
The word in bold are called Interrogative Pronouns.
We use them to ask questions.
What is a legend?
Who is Simalungun?
Why was Mahsuri punished?

The word in bold are called Interrogative Pronouns.
We use them to ask questions.
Interrogative
Pronouns
Usage
Examples
What
to ask about people, animals or things
What do you wear to school?
Whose
to ask about things that belong to someone
Whose bag is that?
Which
to ask about choice
Which is her pet, the cat or the rabbit?
Who
Whom
to ask about people
Who is the boy wearing the green shirt?
Whom are you giving this gift to?

We use these words when we ask questions.
Examples:
Who is that woman over there?
How do you come to school?
Where does your father work?
How are you going to Alor Setar?
Why is the girl crying?
Which dress do you like?
When is the competition?
What happened to the boy?

Let’s practise.
Use the correct interrogative pronouns and answer the questions
(Who/Whose) pair of shoes are these?
(Whom/Which) is your pet, the cat or the goldfish?
(Who/What) is the teacher’s name?
(Whose/Who) lives in that house?

Let’s practice
Based on the text, form questions using interrogative pronouns. Then, answer the questions.
Last week, Jasleen and her family went on a holiday to Lake Chini. They stayed at her grandfather’s home by the lake. They went hiking and visited the Orang Asli settlement. They also went on a boat ride to see beautiful lake. There were many boats at the lake, some with motors and some without. Jasleen and her family took the motorboat.
Jasleen took many photographs of the lotus and the beautiful scenery. She loved the visit to the Orang Asli settlement the most because she learned a lot about their culture.

___ did they see?
___ went on a holiday?
___ did they do at Lake Chini?
___ house did they stay at?
___ did Jasleen go with to Lake Chini?
___ boat did they take to see the beautiful lake?

Let’s do.
Study the picture below.
Construct questions using interrogative pronouns and answer them.
Mr. Chong is May Lee’s uncle. He is a zookeeper.
One day, he checked all the animal cages as usual. He was shocked to see that one of the cages was opened. It was the tapir’s cage.
He saw the footsteps of the tapir outside the cage.
Mr. Chong reported the tapir’s disappearance to the security officers. He suspected the tapir had gone into the bushes near the cage. The best way to find the tapir now is to do a rescue search as soon as possible.
Example: Who is Mr. Chong?

Articles
The words a and an are called indefinite articles.
A is used for words which begin with a consonant sound.
Examples: a building, a dragon, a giant basket
The roof is designed to give the impression of a dragon.

An is used for words which begin with a vowel sound or a silent ‘h’.
Examples: an architect, an earthquake, an hour
It resembles an elephant which is part of Thai culture.

We do not put a or an before a plural noun because a and an means one.
Exceptions: We do not use an before a word that begins with a vowel that makes a ‘y’ sound. We use a instead.
Example: a unicorn, a university, a used car

Read the sentences.
They reached home in an hour.
There is a statue of a unicorn in front of the building.
May Lee took a picture of the elephant with a camera.
Miss Sharmila likes Jasleen because she is an honest girl.

Let's practice
Complete the sentences with a or an.
Miss Sharmila is ___ English teacher.
Vijay was shocked to see ___ iguana lying on the sofa.
Sigat eats ___ slice of watermelon and ___ orange for lunch.
All the pupils of 5 Bestari are drawing ___ picture of ___ unicorn.
They are looking for ___ apartment to stay for the weekend.

The handles are heated to prevent ice from forming.
The is also known as a definite article.
The is used for a particular person or thing.
Examples: the roof, the architect, the owner
The handles are heated to prevent ice from forming.
The is used to refer to things that is more than one.
Examples: the fruits, the people, the buildings
The is also used for something that is the only one of its kind.
Examples: the moon, the Solar System, the Sun

Let’s practise.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate articles.
This is ___ unique building. ___name of this building is ___ Robot. ____ building was designed by ___ architect named Sumet Jumsai. It is located in Thailand. This cheery robot shows ___ friendly face of technology.
___ robot’s eyes are ___ dining and meeting rooms, his eyelids are ___ sunshades, and his antennae are lightning rods. ___ head of ___ robot has nuts on both sides.
The best part is that ___ robot’s eyes are designed to wink at night. They wink to the tune of music. It is certainly ___ eye-catching masterpiece and ___ building every child would love to see.


Adverbs
Adverbs of Frequency
The words in bold are called adverbs of frequency.
We use them to show how often we do something.
My sister and I often play outside. He sometimes works in the garden.
Adverbs of Frequency
Explanation
Example
always
at all times
I always lock the door before I sleep.
often
many times
Miss Sharmila often brings her pupils to the library.
sometimes
occasionally, rather than all of the time
Sigat sometimes goes to school by bus.
seldom
not often
They seldom jog during weekdays.
never
not at all
She never goes out at night.

Rewrite sentences using adverbs of frequency.
He listens to the radio, (often)
I read books at night, (always)
Irfan is early to school, (always)
May Lee loses her things, (never)
Vijay has been to the robotic class, (never)
Miss Sharmila goes on a holiday, (seldom)
The man cycles during weekdays, (seldom)
Jasleen eats bread for breakfast, (sometimes)
My mother wears cheongsam to work, (sometimes)
Sigat visits his grandmother who is living in Sabah, (often)

Let’s practice
Rewrite each sentence using suitable adverbs of frequency.
Father jogs at the park because he is busy.
My father washes the car because he likes it clean.
Bob puts sugar in his tea because he has a sweet tooth.
Mrs. Tan dines in restaurants which serve a variety of food.
We play near the used mining pool because it is dangerous.
My brother helps my mother to keep the house clean when he is free.

Construct sentences using adverbs of frequency based on the schedule below.
Jasleen’s schedule
Day/Time
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
Monday
brushes teeth and showers
does revision
waters the plants
Tuesday
brushes teeth and showers
watches television
sweeps the floor
Wednesday
brushes teeth and showers
watches television
waters the plants
Thursday
brushes teeth and showers
watches television
sweeps the floor
Friday
brushes teeth and showers
does revision
waters the plants
Saturday
brushes teeth and showers
plays computer games
waters the plants
Sunday
brushes teeth and showers
reads books
visits grandmother
Examples:
Jasleen always brushes her teeth and showers in the morning.
She never plays computer games at night.

Adverbs of Degree
The words very, too and enough are called the adverbs of degree.
Examples:
The wall is very high.
He cannot jump over it.
The wall is too high for him to climb over.
They are used to answer the question:
How much? or To what extent

Adverbs of Degree
Explanation
Example
very
It means something is done to a high degree.
She managed to complete the race very quickly.
too
It means more than enough or exessive degree.
The shoes are too small for him to wear.
enough
It means a satisfactory amount or sufficient degree.
The water was shallow enough for them to walk through.

Let’s practise.
Complete the sentence with 'very’, 'too’, and 'enough’.
The bag is not big ___ to hold all the clothes.
The room was large ___to put all the furniture.
Mother is tall ___ to reach the top of the kitchen cabinet.
The rock is ___ big. The strong man cannot carry it. The rock is ___big for him to carry.
The sea water is ___ cold. The swimmers cannot swim in it. The sea water is __ cold for them to swim in.
The hole in the wall is __ small. The mouse cannot go through it.
The hole is ___ small for it to go through.

Vijay’s brother fell during a race. He hurt his legs and arms. He was too weak to stand up and walk. The doctors advised him to take a rest at the hospital because he was very weak to go home. After two weeks, Vijay’s brother was well enough to go to school again.

Join the sentence parts together based on the story.
Column A
Column B
Column C
He was
too weak
to go home.
The doctors advised him to rest at the hospital because he was
well enough
to go to school again.
After two weeks, Vijay’s brother was
very weak
to stand up and walk.

Join the sentence parts to make good sentences.
A
B
The knife
The water
My father
The old man
Miss Sharmila
is too old to work in the farm, so he stays at home.
has a garden and the flowers in her garden are very beautiful.
was too tired to drive home after the Family Day.
is not deep enough to swim in.
was not sharp enough to cut the meat.

Construct your own sentences using these adverbs of degree.
(a) enough   
(b) very         
(c) too

Imperative Sentences.
The sentences above are imperative sentences.
An imperative sentence is a sentence that gives advice, direction, request, and order.
Examples:
Send a ‘Thank you’ card.
Come join us.

Reason
Examples
To give advice or suggestions
Don’t play with fire.
Come to school early.
To give directions
Walk straight and turn left.
Turn right at the junction.
To make a polite request
Please donate some money to help the needy.
Please close the door.
To give orders
Wake up early tomorrow.
Do your homework quietly.

Look at the pictures.
Write suitable imperatives.
Example 1: Please take a seat.

Prefixes and Suffixes
Read and understand how prefixes and suffixes are used.
Base words are words from which other words are built.
They are also called root words.
Examples: place, play, pleasant, weak, fair, friend
Prefixes are placed at the beginning of base words to form new words.
Example: re- (pay), dis- (belief), un- (wanted)
I shall repay your kindness.
He stared in disbelief.
He felt so unwanted.

Suffixes are placed at the end of base words to form new words.
Example: -less (speech), -er (broader), -ly (quickly)       
He was speechless.   
His chest had become broader and grown into lumps.
They left quickly for the wizard’s home.          

When the base words end with an “e”, the “e” is deleted before the suffix “ion” is added.
Example:  created - creation

Other examples:
Displeased, disagree,
Undo, uneasy
Rearrange, review
Stronger, prettier
Endless, jobless
Exactly, slowly
  
Practice
Read the story on … again and list the following:
-8 base words
The prefixes and suffixes
-dis-: ____
-less-: ____
Choose three words with prefixes and suffixes. Use them to make new sentences.
Add correct prefixes or suffixes to the following words:

happy, spell, respect, loud, able, speech

Homophones.
Say aloud the words in bold. They are homophones.
Homophones are words that have the same sound but different meanings and spellings.
Examples:
‘for’ is used to indicate the place someone or something is going to.
Four’ refers to the number .
More examples
ate / eight: Vijay ate his breakfast at eight o’clock.
rode / road: The boy rode a horse along the road.
son / sun: My son loves to play ball when the sun shines.

Fill in the blanks with the correct homophones.
(one, blew, eight, bore, boar, blue, won, ate)
I went to watch the Lupar tidal ___.
When I saw a big wild___.
Roots and plants it greedily____.
Joined later by another ___.       
The people surfed the tidal wave as ____.
Many prizes there to be ____.
A beautiful day, the sky was ____.
The wind was strong, and it ___ and ___.

Think of other homophones.
Make sentences using them.
Example: hair-hare
Imran has to cut his long hair.
Zulaika saw a wild hare in the jungle.


Possession
Read the sentences.
Daniel's school is in Putrajaya.
The girls’ schools are in Lurah Bilut.
The children’s school in Lembah Tembeling is very small.
When we want to show that something belongs or relates to someone:
We add’s after singular names or nouns. Example: Daniel’s
We add ’ after plural nouns that end with s. Example: girls’
We add’s after plural nouns that do not end with s. Example: children’s

Practice
Below are more examples. Read the sentences and discuss the phrases in bold.
Encik Osman’s car is parked under the big tree.
They could hear the children’s voices from afar.
There is a small library in the headmaster’s room.
The women’s association sold nice rattan baskets at the fair.
The girls’ dresses are sold on the second floor of the supermarket.

In this passage, there are phrases that show possession.
Change these phrases by adding apostrophes.
Last Saturday, there was a gotong-royong at our school organised by the Parent and Teacher Association. Many parents came to help. They repaired the pupils chairs and desks, and painted the guard house. They also replaced the window panes in the teachers room and planted new flowering shrubs in the garden. The workers washed the ladies and men toilet and cleared the rubbish. Some parents brought food and drinks for the people. When the gotong-royong was over, everyone was tired but satisfied with the condition of the school.

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